Official Footvolley Rules
Footvolley is a rebound sport played by two teams on a sand court divided by a net. The team has three hits for returning the ball (including the block touch). In Footvolley, the team winning a rally scores a point (Rally Point System). When the receiving team wins a rally, it gains a point and the right to serve. The serving player must be alternated every time this occurs.
Table of contents
CHAPTER I: FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT
CHAPTER II: PARTICIPANTS
CHAPTER III: PLAYING FORMAT
CHAPTER IV: STRUCTURE OF PLAY
CHAPTER V: INTERRUPTIONS, DELAYS AND INTERVALS
CHAPTER VII: PARTICIPANTS’ CONDUCT
CHAPTER VIII: REFEREES
CHAPTER I: FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT
The playing area includes the playing court and the free zone. It shall be rectangular and symmetrical.
1.1.1 The playing court is a rectangle measuring 16 x 8 m, surrounded by a free zone, which is a
minimum of 2 m wide on all sides. The free playing space is the space above the playing area, which is free from all obstructions. The free playing space shall measure a minimum of 7 m in height from the playing surface.
1.1.2 For EFVL, World and Official Competitions, the free zone is a minimum of 3 m and a maximum of 6 m from the end lines/side lines. The free playing space shall measure a minimum of 12.5 m in height from the playing surface.
1.2 PLAYING SURFACE
1.2.1 The surface must be composed of leveled sand, as flat and uniform as possible, free of rocks, shells and anything else which can represent risks of cuts or injuries to the players.
1.2.2 For EFVL, World and Official Competitions, the sand must be at least 40 cm deep and composed of fine loosely compacted grains.
1.2.3 The playing surface must not present any danger of injury to the players.
1.2.4 For EFVL, World and Official Competitions, the sand should also be sifted to an acceptable size, not too coarse, and free of stones and dangerous particles. It should not be too fine to cause dust and stick to the skin.
1.2.5 For EFVL, World and Official Competitions, a tarp to cover the central court is allowed in case of rain.
1.3 LINES ON THE COURT
1.3.1 All lines are 5 cm wide. The lines must be of a colour which contrasts sharply with the colour of the sand.
1.3.2 Two side lines and two end lines mark the playing court. There is no centre line. Both side and end lines are placed inside the dimensions of the playing court.
1.3.3 Court lines should be ribbons made of a resistant material, and any exposed anchors should be of a soft, flexible material.
1.3.4 Cords may be used (same rules as up). When cords used,it must be ensured, that the cords will be good seen at every time of the game.
1.4 ZONES AND AREAS
There is only the court, service zone and the free zone surrounding the court.
1.4.1 The service zone is an 1 m wide area behind the end line which extends to the edge of the free zone.
The weather must not present any danger of injury to the players.
For EFVL, World and Official Competitions, played at night, the lighting on the playing area should be 1,000 to 1,500 lux measured at 1 m above the surface of the playing area.
The net is 8.5 m long and 1 m (+/- 3 cm) wide when it is hung taut, placed vertically over the narrow axis at the middle of the court.
It is made of 10 cm square mesh. At its top and bottom there are two 7-10 cm wide horizontal bands made of two-fold canvas, preferably in white or bright colours, sewn along its full length. Each extremity of the upper band has a hole through which passes a cord fastening the upper band to the posts to keep the top of the net stretched taut.
Within the bands, there is a flexible cable in the upper one and a cord in the bottom one for fastening the net to the posts and keeping its top and bottom taut. It is permissible to have advertising on the horizontal bands of the net.
For EFVL, World and Official Competitions, an 8.0 m net with smaller meshes and brandings displayed between the ends of the net and the posts may be used, provided that the visibility of the athletes and officials will be preserved. Publicity may be printed on the above items as per EFVL regulations.
2.2 SIDE BANDS
Two coloured bands, 5 cm wide (same width as the court lines) and 1 m long, are fastened vertically to the net and placed above each side line. They are considered part of the net.
Advertising is permitted on the side bands
An antenna is a flexible rod, 1.80 m long and 10 mm in diameter, made of fibreglass or similar material.
An antenna is fastened at the outer edge of each side band. The antennae are placed on opposite sides of the net.
The top 80 cm of each antenna extends above the net and is marked with 10 cm stripes of contrasting colour, preferably red and white.
The antennae are considered as part of the net and laterally delimit the crossing space.
2.4 HIGHT OF THE NET
Placed vertically over the middle of the court there is a net whose top is set at the height of 2.20 m for men and 2.10 m for women.
Note: The height of the net may be varied for specific age groups.
2.4.1 Its height is measured from the centre of the playing court with a measuring rod. The net height (over the two side lines) must be exactly the same and must not exceed the official height by more than 2 cm.
2.5.1 The posts supporting the net are placed at a distance of 0.70-1.00 m from each side line to the post padding. They are 2.55 m high and preferably adjustable.
For EFVL, World and Official Competitions, the posts supporting the net are placed at a distance of 1 m outside the side lines.
2.5.2 The posts are rounded and smooth, fixed to the ground without wires. There shall be no dangerous or obstructing devices. Posts must be padded.
2.6 ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT
All additional equipment is determined by EFVL regulations.
The ball shall be spherical, made of a flexible material (leather, synthetic leather, or similar) which does not absorb moisture, i.e. more suitable to outdoor conditions since matches can be played when it is raining. The ball has a bladder inside made of rubber or a similar material. Approval of synthetic leather material is determined by EFVL regulations.
Colour: light colours or a combination of colours.
Mandatory Ball: No5 for women and youth No4.
Circumference: 68 to 70 cm.
Weight: 410 to 440 g.
Inside pressure: 0,255 to 0,295 kg/cm2.
3.2 UNIFORMITY OF BALLS
All balls used in a match must have the same standards regarding circumference, weight, pressure, type, colour, etc .
EFVL, World and Official Competitions must be played with EFVL approved balls, unless by agreement of EFVL.
For EFVL, World and Official Competitions, three balls shall be used. In this case, six (five) ball retrievers are stationed one at each corner of the free zone and one behind each (exept 2nd) referee.
CHAPTER II: PARTICIPANTS
4.1 TEAM COMPOSITION
4.1.1 A team is composed exclusively of two players.
4.1.2 Only the two players recorded on the score sheet have the right to participate in the match.
4.1.3 One of the players is the team captain who shall be indicated on the score sheet.
4.2 LOCATION OF THE TEAM
The team’s areas (including two chairs each) must be 3 m from the sideline, and no closer than 3 m from the scorer’s table.
A player’s equipment consists of shorts or a bathing suit. A jersey or “tank-top” is optional except when specified in Tournament Regulations. Players may wear a hat/head covering.
4.3.1 For EFVL, World and Official Competitions, players of a given team must wear uniforms of the same colour and style according to tournament regulations. Player’s uniforms must be clean.
4.3.2 Players must play barefoot except when authorized by the 1st referee.
4.3.3 Player’s jerseys (or shorts if players are allowed to play without shirt) must be numbered 1 and 2.
220.127.116.11 The number must be placed on the chest (or on the front of the shorts).
18.104.22.168 The numbers must be of a contrasting colour to the jerseys and a minimum of 10 cm in height. The stripe forming the numbers shall be a minimum of 1.5 cm wide.
4.4 CHANGE OF EQUIPMENT
For EFVL, World and Official Competitions: If both teams arrive at a match dressed in jerseys of the same colour, a toss shall be conducted to determine which team shall change.
The first referee may authorize one or more players:
4.4.1 to play with socks and/or shoes,
4.4.2 to change wet jerseys between sets provided that the new ones also follow tournament and EFVL regulations.
4.4.3 If requested by a player, the first referee may authorize him/her to play with undershirts and training pants.
4.5 FORBIDDEN OBJECTS
4.5.1 It is forbidden to wear objects which may cause injury or give an artificial advantage to the player.
4.5.2 Players may wear glasses or lenses at their own risk.
4.5.3 Compression pads (padded injury protection devices) may be worn for protection or support.
The team captain is responsible for maintaining team conduct and discipline.
5.1.1 PRIOR TO THE MATCH, the team captain:
a) Signs the score sheet.
b) Represents his/her team in the toss.
5.1.2 During the match, both players are authorized to speak to the referees while the ball is out of play in the following three cases:
22.214.171.124 to ask for an explanation on the application or interpretation of the Rules; if the explanation does not satisfy the player, the captain must immediately inform the 1st referee of his/her wish to Protest;
126.96.36.199 to ask authorization:
a) to change uniforms or equipment,
b) to verify the number of the serving player,
c) to check the net, the ball, the surface etc.,
d) to realign a court line;
188.8.131.52 to request time-outs.
Note: the players must have authorization from the referees to leave the playing area.
5.1.3 AT THE END OF THE MATCH:
184.108.40.206 Both players thank the referees and the opponents. The Captain signs the score sheet to ratify the result;
220.127.116.11 If the captain previously requested a Protest Protocol via the 1st referee and this has not been successfully resolved at the time of the occurrence, he/she has the right to confirm it as a formal written protest, recorded on the score sheet at the end of the match.
6.1 BOTH PLAYERS
6.1.1 The participants must know and follow the rules
6.1.2 The decisions oft he referees are in sporting spirit recognize without contradiction.
6.1.3 The participants must think „Fair play“ and behave friendly and polite to all officials and the audiance
6.1.4 The players must not act to influence decisions of the referees.
6.1.5 The participants must not delay the game.
CHAPTER III: PLAYING FORMAT
7.1 TO SCORE A POINT
A team scores a point:
18.104.22.168 by successfully grounding the ball on the opponent’s court;
22.214.171.124 when the opponent team commits a fault;
126.96.36.199 when the opponent team receives a penalty.
A team commits a fault by making a playing action contrary to the rules (or by violating them in some other way). The referees judge the faults and determine the consequences according to the rules:
188.8.131.52 if two or more faults are committed successively, only the first one is counted;
184.108.40.206 if two or more faults are committed by opponents simultaneously, a DOUBLE FAULT is called and the rally is replayed.
7.1.3 Rally and completed rally
A rally is the sequence of playing actions from the moment of the service hit by the server until the ball is out of play. A completed rally is the sequence of playing actions which results in the award of a point. This includes the award of a penalty and loss of service for serving faults out-with the time limit.
220.127.116.11 If the serving team wins a rally, it scores a point and continues to serve.
18.104.22.168 If the receiving team wins a rally, it scores a point and it must serve next.
7.2 TO WIN A SET
7.2.1 A set (except the deciding 3rd set) is won by the team which first scores 18 points with a minimum lead of two points. In the case of a 17-17 tie, play is continued until a two-point lead is achieved (22-20; 19-21; etc).
7.3 TO WIN A MATCH
7.3.1 The match is won by the team that wins two sets.
7.3.2 In the case of a 1-1 tie, the deciding 3rd set is played to 15 points with a minimum lead of 2 points.
7.4 DEFAULT AND INCOMPLETE TEAM
7.4.1 If a team refuses to play after being summoned to do so, it is declared in default and forfeits the match with the result 0-2 for the match and 0-18, 0-18 for each set.
7.4.2 A team that does not appear on the playing court on time is declared in default.
7.4.3 A team that is declared INCOMPLETE for the set or for the match, loses the set or the match. The opponent team is given the points, or the points and the sets, needed to win the set or the match. The incomplete team keeps its points and sets.
For EFVL, World and Official Competitions, whenever the Pool Play format is implemented, Rule 7.4 above may be subject to modifications as stated in the Specific Competition Regulations issued by the EFVL in due time, establishing the modality to be followed for treating the default and incomplete team cases.
CHAPTER IV: STRUCTURE OF PLAY
8.1 THE TOSS
Before the official warm up, the 1st referee conducts the toss to decide upon the first service and the sides of the court in the first set.
8.1.1 The toss is taken in the presence of the two team captains, where appropriate.
8.1.2 The winner of the toss chooses:
22.214.171.124 the right to serve or to receive the service,
126.96.36.199 the side of the court.
The loser takes the remaining choice.
188.8.131.52 In the second set the loser of the toss in the first set will have the choice of 184.108.40.206 or 220.127.116.11.
A new toss will be conducted for the deciding set.
Prior to the match, if the teams have previously had another playing court at their disposal, they will have a 3-minute official warm-up period at the net; if not, they may have 5 minutes.
8.3 TEAM LINE-UP
Both players of each team must always be in play.
At the moment the ball is hit by the server, each team must be within its own court (except the server).
8.4.1 The players are free to position themselves. There are NO determined positions on the court.
8.5 POSITIONAL FAULT
8.5.1 There are NO positional order faults.
8.6 SERVICE ORDER
8.6.1 Service order must be maintained throughout the set (as determined by the team captain immediately following the toss).
8.6.2 When the receiving team has gained the right to serve, its players “rotate” one position.
8.7 SERVICE ORDER FAULT
8.7.1 A service order fault is committed when the service is not made according to the service order. The team is not sanctioned,points are remaining.
8.7.2 The scorer(s) must correctly indicate the service order and correct any incorrect server.
9.1 BALL IN PLAY
The ball is in play from the moment of the hit of the service authorized by the 1st referee.
9.2 BALL OUT OF PLAY
The ball is out of play at the moment of the fault which is whistled by one of the referees; in the absence of a fault, at the moment of the whistle.
9.3 BALL „IN“
The ball is ”in” when it touches the surface of the playing court including the boundary lines.
9.4 BALL „OUT“
9.4.1 falls on the ground completely outside the boundary lines (without touching them);
9.4.2 touches an object outside the court, or a person out of play;
9.4.3 touches the antennae, ropes, posts or the net itself outside the side bands;
9.4.4 crosses the vertical plane of the net either partially or totally outside the crossing space during service or during the third hit of the team (exception: Rule 11.1.2).
9.4.5 crosses completely the lower space under the net.
Each team must play within its own playing area and playing space (except Rule 11.1.2 & 15.3). The ball may, however, be retrieved from beyond the free zone.
10.1 TEAM HITS
A hit is any contact with the ball by a player in play. Each team is entitled to a maximum of three hits for returning the ball over the net. If more are used, the team commits the fault of “FOUR HITS”. These team hits include not only intentional hits by the player, but also unintentional contacts with the ball.
10.1.1 CONSECUTIVE CONTACTS
A player may not hit the ball two times consecutively hits (with the exception of blocking).
10.1.2 SIMULTANEOUS CONTACTS
Two players may touch the ball at the same moment.
10.1.2.1 When two teammates touch the ball simultaneously, it is counted as two hits (with the exception of blocking).
If they reach for the ball but only one of them touches it, one hit is counted.
If players collide, no fault is committed.
10.1.2.2 When two opponents touch the ball simultaneously over the net and the ball remains in play, the team receiving the ball is entitled to another three hits. If such a ball goes ”out”, it is the fault of the team on the opposite side.
10.1.2.3 If simultaneous hits by two opponents over the net lead to an extended contact with the ball, play continues.
10.1.3 Within the playing area, a player is not permitted to take support from a teammate or any structure/object in order to hit the ball. However, a player who is about to commit a fault (touch the net or interfere with an opponent, etc.) may be stopped or held back by a team-mate.
10.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF A HIT
The ball must rebound
10.2.1 The ball may touch any part of the body, except arms and hands.
10.2.2 The ball must not be caught or thrown. It can rebound in any direction.
10.3 FAULTS IN PLAYING THE BALL
10.3.1 FOUR HITS: a team hits the ball four times before returning it.
10.3.2 ASSISTED HIT: a player takes support from a teammate or any structure/ object in order to hit the ball within the playing area.
10.3.3 CATCH: the ball is caught and/or thrown; it does not rebound from the hit.
10.3.4 DOUBLE CONTACT: a player hits the ball twice in succession or the ball contacts various parts of his/her body in succession.
11.1 BALL CROSSING THE NET
11.1.1 The ball sent to the opponent’s court must go over the net within the crossing space. The crossing space is the part of the vertical plane of the net limited as follows:
18.104.22.168 below, by the top of the net;
22.214.171.124 at the sides, by the antennae, and their imaginary extension;
126.96.36.199 above, by the ceiling or structure (if any).
11.1.2 The ball that has crossed the net plane to the opponent’s free zone totally or partly through the external space, may be played back within the team hits, provided that:
188.8.131.52 The ball when played back crosses the vertical plane of the net again totally, or partly through the external space on the same side of the court. The opponent team may not prevent such action.
11.1.3 The ball is “out” when it crosses completely the lower space under the net.
11.1.4 A player, however, may enter the opponents’ court in order to play the ball before it crosses completely the lower space or passes outside the crossing space.
11.2 BALL TOUCHING THE NET
While crossing the net, the ball may touch it.
11.3 BALL IN THE NET
11.3.1 A ball driven into the net may be recovered within the limits of the three team hits.
11.3.2 If the ball rips the mesh of the net or tears it down, the rally is cancelled and replayed.
12.1 REACHING BEYOND THE NET
12.1.1 In blocking, a player may touch the ball beyond the net, provided that he/she does not interfere with the opponent’s play, before or during the latter’s attack hit.
12.1.2 After an attack hit, a player is permitted to pass his/her hand beyond the net, provided that the contact has been made within his/her own playing space.
12.2 PENETRATION INTO THE OPPONENT’S SPACE, COURT AND/OR FREE ZONE
12.2.1 A player may enter into the opponent’s space, court and/or free zone, provided that this does not interfere with the opponent’s play.
12.3 CONTACT WITH THE NET
12.3.1 Contact with the net by a player between the antennae, during the action of playing the ball, is a fault. The action of playing the ball includes (among others) take-off, hit (or attempt) and landing.
12.3.2 Players may touch the post, ropes, or any other object outside the antennae, including the net itself, provided that it does not interfere with the play.
12.3.3 When the ball is driven into the net, causing it to touch an opponent, no fault is committed.
12.4 PLAYER’S FAULTS AT THE NET
12.4.1 A player touches the ball or an opponent in the opponent’s space before or during the opponent’s attack hit.
12.4.2 A player interferes with the opponent’s play while penetrating into the opponent’s space under the net.
12.4.3 A player interferes with play by (amongst others):
touching the net between the antennae or the antenna itself during his/her action of playing the ball,
using the net between the antennae as a support or stabilizing aid
creating an unfair advantage over the opponent by touching the net
making actions which hinder an opponent’s legitimate attempt to play the ball,
catching/holding on to the net
Players close to the ball as it is played, or who are trying to play it, are considered in the action of playing the ball, even if no contact is made with the ball. However, touching the net outside the antenna is not to be considered as a fault (without interference).
The service is the act of putting the ball into play by the correct serving player placed in the service zone.
13.1 FIRST SERVICE IN A SET
13.1.1 The first service of a set is executed by the team determined by the toss.
13.2 SERVICE ORDER
13.2.1 The players must follow the service order recorded on the score sheet.
13.2.2 After the first service in a set, the player to serve is determined as follows:
184.108.40.206 when the serving team wins the rally, the player who served before, serves again.
220.127.116.11 when the receiving team wins the rally, it gains the right to serve and the player who did not serve last time will serve.
13.3 AUTHORIZATION OF THE SERVICE
The 1st referee authorizes the service, after having checked that the teams are ready to play and that the server is in possession of the ball.
13.4 EXECUTION OF THE SERVICE
13.4.1 The ball shall be hit with the foot.
13.4.3 The server may move freely within the service zone. At the moment of the service hit, the server must not touch the court (the end line included) or the ground outside the service zone. His/her foot may not go under the end line.
After the hit, he/she may step outside the service zone, or inside the court. If the line moves because of the sand pushed by the server, it is not considered a fault.
13.4.4 The server must hit the ball shortly after the 1st referee whistles for service (5 sec. is a good time) .
13.4.5 A service executed before the referee’s whistle is cancelled and repeated. The execution of a service start with the beginning of movement to do it.
13.4.6 If the ball, placed on the hill by the server, roll down, the referee whistle a “double fault” the server should pick it up and place it again on the hill. The referee authorized new attempt. If this happened often, the server receive a delay-warning.
13.5.1 A player of the serving team must not prevent the opponent, through individual screening, from seeing the server AND the flight path of the ball.
13.5.2 A player of the serving team makes a screen by waving arms, jumping or moving sideways during the execution of the service to hide the server and the flight path of the ball.
13.6 FAULTS MADE DURING THE SERVICE
13.6.1 Serving faults
The following faults lead to a change of service. The server:
18.104.22.168 violates the service order,
22.214.171.124 does not execute the service properly.
13.6.2 Faults after the service hit
After the ball has been correctly hit, the service becomes a fault if the ball:
126.96.36.199 touches a player of the serving team or fails to cross the vertical plane of the net completely through the crossing space;
188.8.131.52 goes “out”;
184.108.40.206 passes over a screen
14.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ATTACK HIT
14.1.1 All actions which direct the ball towards the opponent, with the exception of service and block, are considered as attack hits.
14.1.2 An attack-hit is completed the moment the ball completely crosses the vertical plane of the net or is touched by an opponent.
14.1.3 Any player may carry out an attack-hit at any height, provided that his/ her contact with the ball has been made within the player’s own playing space.
14.2 FAULTS OF THE ATTACK HIT
14.2.1 A player hits the ball within the playing space of the opposing team.
14.2.2 A player hits the ball ”out”.
14.2.3 A player completes an attack hit on the opponent’s service, when the ball is entirely higher than the top of the net.
15.1.1 Blocking is the action of players close to the net to intercept the ball coming from the opponent by reaching higher than the top of the net, regardless of the height of the ball contact. At the moment of the contact with the ball, a part of the body must be higher than the top of the net.
15.1.2 Block Attempt
A block attempt is the action of blocking without touching the ball.
15.1.3 Completed Block
A block is completed whenever the ball is touched by a blocker.
15.1.4 Collective Block
A collective block is executed by two players close to each other, and is completed when one of them touches the ball.
15.2 BLOCK CONTACT
Consecutive (quick and continuous) contacts may occur by one or more blockers provided that the contacts are made during one action. These are counted as only one team hit. These contacts may occur with any part of the body.
15.3 BLOCKING WITHIN THE OPPONENT’S SPACE
In blocking, the player may place his/her hands and arms beyond the net, provided that this action does not interfere with the opponent’s play. Thus, it is not permitted to touch the ball beyond the net until an opponent has executed an attack hit.
15.4 BLOCK AND TEAM HITS
15.4.1 A blocking contact is counted as a team hit. The blocking team will have only two more hits after a blocking contact.
15.4.2 The first hit after the block may be executed by any player, including the one who has touched the ball during the block.
15.5 BLOCKING THE SERVICE
To block an opponent’s service is forbidden.
15.6 BLOCKING FAULTS
15.6.1 The blocker touches the ball in the OPPONENT’S space either before or simultaneously with the opponent’s attack hit.
15.6.2 Blocking the ball in the opponent’s space from outside the antenna.
15.6.3 A player blocks the opponent’s service.
15.6.4 The ball is sent ”out” from the block.
CHAPTER V: INTERRUPTIONS, DELAYS AND INTERVALS
An interruption is the time between one completed rally and the 1st referee’s whistle for the next service. The only regular game interruptions are TIME-OUTS.
16.1 NUMBER OF REGULAR GAME INTERRUPTIONS
Each team may request a maximum of one time-out per set.
16.2 SEQUENCE OF REGULAR GAME INTERRUPTIONS
16.2.1 Request for time-out by both teams may follow one another, within the same interruption.
16.2.2 There are no substitutions.
16.3 REQUEST FOR REGULAR GAME INTERRUPTIONS
Regular game interruptions may be requested by both players.
16.4 TIME-OUTS AND TECHNICAL TIME-OUTS
16.4.1 Time-out requests must be made by showing the corresponding hand signal, when the ball is out of play and before the start for service. All requested time-outs last for 60 seconds
16.4.2 During all regular interruptions and set intervals, players must go to the designated players’ area.
16.5 IMPROPER REQUESTS
Among others, it is improper to request a time-out:
16.5.1 during a rally or at the moment of, or after the first referee starts his action to autoresize the”kick-off”
16.5.2 by a non-authorised person,
16.5.3 after having exhausted the authorized time-outs.
16.5.4 Any improper request that does not affect or delay the game shall be rejected without any sanction unless repeated in the same match.
16.5.5 Any further improper request in the same match by the same team constitutes a delay.
17.1 TYPES OF DELAYS
An improper action of a team that defers resumption of the game is a delay and includes, among others:
17.1.1 prolonging time-outs, after having been instructed to resume the game;
17.1.2 repeating an improper request;
17.1.3 delaying the game (12 seconds shall be the maximum time from the end of a rally to the whistle for service under normal playing conditions);
17.1.4 delaying the game by a team member.
17.2 DELAY SANCTIONS
17.2.1 ”Delay warning” and ”delay penalty” are team sanctions.
220.127.116.11 Delay sanctions remain in force for the entire match.
18.104.22.168 All delay sanctions are recorded on the score sheet.
17.2.2 The first delay in the match by a team member is sanctioned with a ”DELAY WARNING”.
17.2.3 The second and subsequent delays of any type by any member of the same team in the same match constitute a fault and are sanctioned with a ”DELAY PENALTY”: a point and service to the opponent.
17.2.4 Delay sanctions imposed before or between sets are applied in the following set.
18.1 INJURY / ILLNESS
18.1.1 Should a serious accident occur while the ball is in play, the referee must stop the game immediately and permit medical assistance to enter the court. The rally is then replayed.
18.1.2 An injured/ill player is given a maximum of 5 minutes recovery time, one time in a match. The referee must authorize the properly accredited medical staff to enter the playing court to attend the player. Only the 1st referee may authorize a player to leave the playing area without penalty. When the treatment has been completed or if no treatment can be provided, play must resume. The 2nd referee will whistle and request the player to continue. At this time, only the player can judge whether he/she is fit to play.
If the player does not recover or return to the playing area at the conclusion of the recovery time, his/her team is declared incomplete. In extreme cases, the doctor of the competition can oppose the return of an injured player.
Note: the recovery time will begin when the properly accredited medical staff member(s) of the competition arrives at the playing court to attend to the player. In the event that no accredited medical staff is available or in cases where the player chooses to be treated by his/her own medical personnel, the time will begin from the moment the recovery time was authorized by the referee.
18.2 EXTERNAL INTERFERENCE
If there is any external interference during the game, the play has to be stopped and the rally is replayed.
18.3 PROLONGED INTERRUPTIONS
18.3.1 If unforeseen circumstances interrupt the match, the 1st referee, the organizer and the Control Committee, if there is one, shall decide the measures to be taken to re-establish normal conditions.
18.3.2 Should one or several interruptions occur not exceeding 4 hours in total, the match is resumed with the score acquired, regardless of whether it continues on the same court or another court.
18.3.3 Should one or several interruptions occur, exceeding 4 hours in total, the whole match shall be replayed.
19.1.1 An interval is the time between sets. All intervals last one minute. During this period of time, the change of courts (if requested) and service order of the teams on the score sheet are made. During the interval before a deciding set, the referees carry out a toss in accordance with Rule 8.1.
19.2 COURT SWITCHES
19.2.1 The teams switch after every 6 points (Set 1 and 2) and 5 points (Set 3) played.
19.2.2 During court switches the teams must change immediately without delay. If the court switch is not made at the proper time, it will take place as soon as the error is noticed. The score at the time that the court switch is made remains the same.
CHAPTER VII: PARTICIPANTS’ CONDUCT
20.1 SPORTSMANLIKE CONDUCT
20.1.1 Participants must know the “Official Footvolley Rules” and abide by them.
20.1.2 Participants must accept referees’ decisions with sportsmanlike conduct, without disputing them. In case of doubt, clarification may be requested by both players.
20.1.3 Participants must refrain from actions or attitudes aimed at influencing the decisions of the referees or covering up faults committed by their team.
20.2 FAIR PLAY
20.2.1 Participants must behave respectfully and courteously in the spirit of FAIR PLAY, not only towards the referees, but also towards other officials, the opponent, teammates and spectators.
20.2.2 Communication between team members during the match is permitted.
21.1 MINOR MISCONDUCT
Minor misconduct offences are not subject to sanctions. It is the 1st referee’s duty to prevent the teams from approaching the sanctioning level.
This is done in two stages:
Stage 1: by issuing a verbal warning through the captain;
Stage 2: by use of a YELLOW CARD to a team member. This formal warning is not in itself a sanction but a symbol that the team member (and by extension the team) has reached the sanctioning level for the match. It is recorded in the score sheet but has no immediate consequences.
21.2 MISCONDUCT LEADING TO SANCTIONS
Incorrect conduct by a team member towards officials, opponents, teammates or spectators is classified in three categories according to the seriousness of the offence.
21.2.1 Rude conduct: acting contrary to good manners or moral principles,
21.2.2 Offensive conduct: defamatory or insulting words or gestures including any action expressing contempt.
21.2.3 Aggression: actual physical attack or aggressive or threatening behaviour.
21.3 SANCTION SCALE
According to the judgment of the 1st referee and depending on the seriousness of the offence, the sanctions to be applied and recorded on the score sheet are: Penalty, Expulsion or Disqualification.
For rude conduct or a single repetition of rude conduct in the same set by the same player. On each of the first two occasions, the team is sanctioned with a point and service to the opponents. A third rude conduct by a player in the same set is sanctioned by expulsion. Rude conduct sanctions may, however, be given to the same player in subsequent sets.
The first offensive conduct is sanctioned by expulsion. The player who is sanctioned with expulsion must leave the playing area and his/her team is declared incomplete for the set.
The first physical attack or implied or threatened aggression is sanctioned by disqualification. The player must leave the playing area and his/her team is declared incomplete for the match.
MISCONDUCT is sanctioned as shown in the sanction scale.
21.4 MISCONDUCT BEFORE AND BETWEEN SETS
Any misconduct occurring before or between sets is sanctioned according to the sanction scale and the sanction is applied in the following set.
21.5 SUMMARY OF MISCONDUCT AND CARDS USED
Warning: no sanction – Stage 1: verbal warning
Stage 2: symbol Yellow card
Penalty: sanction – symbol Red card
Expulsion: sanction – symbol Red + Yellow cards jointly
Disqualification: sanction – symbol Red + Yellow card separately
CHAPTER VIII: REFEREES
The refereeing corps for a match is composed of the following officials:
the 1st referee,
the 2nd referee,
four (two) line judges.
Their location is shown in the Appendix.
For EFVL, World and Official Competitions, an assistant scorer is compulsory.
22.2.1 Only the 1st and 2nd referees may blow a whistle during the match:
22.214.171.124 the 1st referee gives the signal for the service that begins the rally.
126.96.36.199 the 1st or 2nd referee signals the end of the rally, provided that they are sure that a fault has been committed and they have identified its nature.
22.2.2 They may blow the whistle when the ball is out of play to indicate that they authorize or reject a team request.
22.2.3 Immediately after the referee blows the whistle to signal the completion of the rally, they have to indicate with the official hand signals:
188.8.131.52 If the fault is whistled by the 1st referee, he/she will indicate in order:
a) the team to serve,
b) the nature of the fault,
c) the player(s) at fault (if necessary).
184.108.40.206 If the fault is whistled by the 2nd referee, he/she will indicate:
a) the nature of the fault,
b) the player at fault (if necessary),
c) the team to serve following the hand signal of the first referee.
In this case, the 1st referee does not show either the nature of the fault or the player at fault, but only the team to serve.
220.127.116.11 In the case of a double fault both referees show the handsign for “double fault”. The team to serve next is then indicated by the 1st referee.
The 1st referee carries out his/her functions standing on a referee’s stand located at one end of the net on the opposite side to the scorer. His/her view must be approximately 50 cm above the net.
23.2.1 The 1st referee directs the match from the start until the end. He/she has authority over all members of the refereeing corps and the members of the teams. During the match his/her decisions are final. He/she is authorized to overrule the decisions of other members of the refereeing corps, if it is noticed that they are mistaken. He/she may even replace a member of the refereeing corps who is not performing his/her functions properly.
23.2.2 He/she also controls the work of the ball retrievers.
23.2.3 He/she has the power to decide any matters involving the game, including those not provided for in the Rules.
23.2.4 He/she shall not permit any discussion about his/her decisions. However, at the request of the captain, the 1st referee will give an explanation on the application or interpretation of the rules upon which he/she has based his/her decision. If the captain disagrees with the explanation and formally protests, the 1st referee must authorize the commencement of a Protest Protocol.
23.2.5 The 1st referee is responsible for determining before and during the match whether the playing area and the conditions meet playing requirements.
23.3.1 Prior to the match, the 1st referee:
18.104.22.168 inspects the conditions of the playing area, the balls and other equipment;
22.214.171.124 performs the toss with the team captains;
126.96.36.199 controls the teams’ warming-up.
23.3.2 During the match, he/she is authorized:
188.8.131.52 to issue warnings to the teams;
184.108.40.206 to sanction misconduct and delays;
220.127.116.11 to decide upon:
a) the faults of the server and the screen of the serving team;
b) the faults in playing the ball;
c) the faults above the net, and the faulty contact of the player with the net, primarily on the attacker’s side;
d) the ball crossing completely the lower space under the net;
23.3.3 At the end of the match, he/she checks the score sheet and signs it.
The 2nd referee performs his/her functions standing outside the playing court near the post, on the opposite side of and facing the 1st referee.
24.2.1 The 2nd referee is the assistant of the 1st referee, but has also his/her own range of jurisdiction.
Should the 1st referee be unable to continue his/her work, the 2nd referee may replace him/her.
24.2.2 He/she may, without whistling, also signal faults outside his/her range of jurisdiction, but must not insist upon them to the 1st referee.
24.2.3 He/she controls the work of the scorer(s).
24.2.4 He/she reports any misconduct to the 1st referee.
24.2.5 He/she authorizes the time-outs and court switches, controls the duration of such and rejects improper requests.
24.2.6 He/she checks the number of time-outs used by each team and reports to the 1st referee and the players concerned after completion of their time-out.
24.2.7 In the case of an injury of a player, the 2nd referee authorizes and assists in managing the recovery time.
24.2.8 He/she checks during the match that the balls still meet the requirements of the regulations.
24.2.9 He/she conducts the toss between sets 2 and 3, if applicable. He/she then must pass all relevant information to the scorer.
24.3.1 At the start of each set, and whenever necessary, the 2nd referee controls the work of the scorer and checks that the correct server has the ball.
24.3.2 During the match, the 2nd referee decides, whistles and signals:
18.104.22.168 interference due to penetration into the opponent’s court and space under the net;
22.214.171.124 the faulty contact of the player with the net primarily on the blocker’s side and with the antenna on his/her side of the court;
126.96.36.199 the contact of the ball with an outside object;
188.8.131.52 the ball that crosses the net totally or partly outside the crossing space to the opponent court or touches the antenna on his/her side of the court, including during service;
184.108.40.206 the contact of the ball with the sand when the 1st referee is not in position to see the contact;
220.127.116.11 the ball recovered completely on the opponent’s side under the net.
24.3.3 At the end of the match, he/she checks and signs the score sheet.
The scorer performs his/her functions seated at the scorer’s table on the opposite side of the court from and facing the 1st referee.
The scorer fills in the score sheet according to the Rules, cooperating with the 2nd referee. He/she uses a buzzer or other sound device to notify irregularities or give signals to the referees on the basis of his/her responsibilities.
25.2.1 Prior to the match and set, the scorer:
18.104.22.168 registers the data of the match and teams, according to procedures in force and obtains the signatures of the captains;
22.214.171.124 records the service order of each team.
25.2.2 During the match, the scorer:
126.96.36.199 records the points scored;
188.8.131.52 controls the serving order of each team and indicates any error before the service hit;
184.108.40.206 records the time-outs, checking the number of such, and informs the 2nd referee;
220.127.116.11 notifies the referees of a request for time-out that is improper; 15.5
18.104.22.168 announces to the referees the court switches and the end of the sets;
22.214.171.124 records any sanctions and improper requests;
126.96.36.199 records all other events as instructed by the 2nd referee, i.e. recovery time, prolonged interruptions, external interference, etc.;
188.8.131.52 controls the interval between sets:
25.2.3 At the end of the match, the scorer;
184.108.40.206 records the final result;
220.127.116.11 in the case of a protest, with the previous authorization of the 1st referee, writes or permits the captain concerned to write on the score sheet a statement on the incident being protested;
18.104.22.168 signs the score sheet, before he/she obtains the signatures of the team captains and then the referees.
26.1 LOCATION D1
The assistant scorer performs his/her functions seated beside the scorer at the scorer’s table.
He/she assists with the administrative duties of the scorer’s work.
Should the scorer become unable to continue his/her work, the assistant scorer substitutes for the scorer.
26.2.1 Prior to the match and set, the assistant scorer;
22.214.171.124 checks that all information displayed at the scoreboard(s) is correct,
26.2.2 During the match, the assistant scorer;
126.96.36.199 indicates the serving order of each team by displaying a sign numbered 1 or 2 corresponding to the player to serve and,
188.8.131.52 indicates by use of the buzzer any error to the referees immediately;
184.108.40.206 operates the manual scoreboard on the scorer’s table;
220.127.116.11 checks that the scoreboards agree;
18.104.22.168 starts and ends the timing of the Technical Time-outs;
22.214.171.124 if necessary, updates the reserve score sheet and gives it to the scorer;
26.2.3 At the end of the match, the assistant scorer;
126.96.36.199 signs the score sheet.
If only two line judges are used, they stand at the corners of the court closest to the right hand of each referee, diagonally at 1 to 2 m from the corner. Each one of them controls both the end line and side line on his/her side.
For EFVL, World and Official Competitions, when it is compulsory to have four line judges, they stand in the free zone at 1 to 3 m from each corner of the court, on the imaginary extension of the line that they control.
27.2.1 The line judges perform their functions by using flags (40 x 40 cm), to signal:
188.8.131.52 the ball ”in” and ”out” whenever the ball lands near their line(s).
(Note: it is primarily the line judge closest to the path of the ball who is responsible for the signal);
184.108.40.206 the touches of ”out” balls by the team receiving the ball; 8.4, D10 (3)
220.127.116.11 the ball touching the antenna, the served ball and the third hit of the team crossing the net outside the crossing space, etc.;
18.104.22.168 any player (except the server) stepping outside of his/her court at the moment of the service hit;
22.214.171.124 the foot faults of the server; 12.4.3,
126.96.36.199 any contact with the top 80 cm of the antenna on their side of the court by any player during his/her action of playing the ball or interfering with the play;
188.8.131.52 the ball crossing the net outside the crossing space into the opponent’s court or touching the antenna on his/her side of the court.
184.108.40.206 the block touches during the rally.
27.2.2 At the first referee’s request, a line judge must repeat his/her signal.
28.1 REFEREES’ HAND SIGNALS
The referees will indicate with the official hand signal the reason for their whistle (the nature of the fault whistled or the purpose of the interruption authorized). The signal has to be maintained for a moment and, if it is indicated with one hand, the hand corresponds to the side of the team which has made the fault or the request.
28.2 LINE JUDGES’ FLAG SIGNALS
The line judges must indicate with the official flag signal the nature of the fault called, and maintain the signal for a moment.